Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in premature babies is extremely rare as is a vesicular skin rash, while gastrointestinal involvement is associated with a poor outcome. We report a case of LCH in a premature baby presented with isolated vesiculo-papulo-macular skin lesions and insidiously developed gastrointestinal symptoms, haematological and severe pulmonary involvement. We also reviewed a few cases of LCH in premature babies in the English language medical literature. LCH in preterm babies appears to be a severe systemic disease, usually lethal in-utero or post delivery.
Conclusion: Careful observation should be applied to newborns with skin-only Langerhans cell histiocytosis in order to identify in time progression to potentially fatal systemic disease.