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Pesticides in water and birth defects

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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Birth defects were found to be more common in American infants conceived between April and July. This has been related to the finding of higher concentrations of pesticides, particularly agrochemicals in surface water. 11 of 22 birth defects were more likely to occur if conceived during the season when the concentration of agrochemicals were highest. See article by Paul D. Winchester et al. (pp. 664-669).

Out of sight, out of mind

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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Small infants lack object permanence i.e. if an object is removed out of sight, the infant is not aware of it (out of mind). By measuring object permanence as an indicator of early working memory, Jean Lowe et al. found that toddlers born very low birth weight were less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence. These difficulties can persist throughout childhood and lead to learning difficulties (pp. 660-663).

Measles

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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About 200 000 children die every year due to measles. Hamidah Hussain et al describe the endemic measles in Karachi, Pakistan. Although the vaccination coverage has increased considerably, vaccination campaigns are necessary to exceed 90% coverage (pp. 720-724). See also article by Sven Arne Silfverdal et al. demonstrating that breastfeeding may cause a modest reduced risk for clinical measles up to the age of 10 years (pp. 715-719).

Zinc

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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About 25% of the world population is at risk of zinc deficiency. Yasemin Üçkardeş et al report that zinc supplementation can significantly decrease the risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity. Zinc is also an important element in the preservation of immune resistance. Children with moderate bronchial asthma benefit from a diet supplementation with zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C (pp. 731-736). See also article by Mohammed AL Biltagi et al. (pp. 737-742).

Electrical injuries

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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Electrical injuries should be preventable. However, William Dokov report from Bulgaria an average of nearly 25 deaths per year in children due to electrocution. Most of these were due to domestic incidents. Some cases were due to attempts to steal live electrical conduits (pp. 756-757).

Young Investigator Award

  1. Top of page
  2. Pesticides in water and birth defects
  3. Out of sight, out of mind
  4. Measles
  5. Zinc
  6. Electrical injuries
  7. Young Investigator Award

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This year's Swedish award is given to Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, who has published an article together with Johan Bengtsson, Zoltan Nagy, Hans De Keyzer and Mikael Norman entitled ‘Preterm birth and maternal smoking in pregnancy are strong risk factors for aortic narrowing in adolescence’. Subjects born preterm were found to have about 15-20% narrowing of the aortic lumen. It may explain why these children may have a higher risk of developing hypertension later in life (Acta Paediatr 2008; 97:1080-5).