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Keywords:

  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia;
  • Continuous positive airway pressure;
  • Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation;
  • Respiratory distress syndrome;
  • Surfactant

Abstract

The Scandinavian approach is an effective combined treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It is composed of many individual parts. Of significant importance is the early treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and surfactant treatment. The approach may be supplemented with caffeine citrate and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for apnoea. The low incidence of BPD seen as a consequence of the treatment strategy is mainly due to a reduced need for mechanical ventilation (MV).

Conclusion:  Early-postnatal treatment with nCPAP and surfactant decreases the severity and mortality of RDS and BPD. This is mainly due to a diminished use of MV in the first days of life.