Detection of new respiratory viruses in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis: a three-year prospective study


  • This work was supported by Spanish National Health Institute (ISCIII, Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias) Grants 98/0310 and PI06/0532.

C Calvo, Hospital Severo Ochoa, Avda, Orellana, s.n. 28911, Leganés, Madrid, Spain.
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Aim:  We have designed a study with the objective of describing the clinical impact of other viruses different from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis.

Methods:  A 3 year prospective study was conducted on infants admitted to the Paediatrics Department of the Severo Ochoa Hospital (Spain). We studied the frequency of 16 respiratory viruses. Clinical characteristics of RSV-only infections were compared with other single agent viral infections.

Results:  Positive results were confirmed in 275 (86.5%) of the 318 children studied. A single virus was detected in 196 patients and 79 were dual or multiple viral infections. RSV was detected in 61.3% of total bronchiolitis. Rhinovirus (RV) was 17.4% of the identified virus, followed by human bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus and metapneumovirus (hMPV). Only RV, HBoV and hMPV were significant as single infections. RSV patients were younger than HBoV (p > 0.0001) and hMPV (p = 0.025). Seasonality was clearly different between them. Children with RSV infection needed treatment in the intensive care unit more frequently than others.

Conclusions:  In hospitalized infants, RSV was the most frequent agent in bronchiolitis in winter, but other viruses were present in 47% of the patients. RV, HBoV and hMPV had a significant proportion of single infections. Clinical characteristics were similar amongst them, but seasonality was clearly different.