Aim: To evaluate the relationships of visfatin, adiponectin and leptin with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescent female athletes with different training patterns.
Methods: This study involved 170 healthy 13–15-year-old girls divided into six groups based on activity: sport games (i.e. basketball, volleyball, badminton) (n = 49), track sprint (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24), cross-country skiing (n = 17) and sedentary controls (n = 33). BMD and BMC at femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2–L4) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin and glucose were measured, and the insulin resistance index was calculated using homeostasis model assessment.
Results: There were no relationships found between visfatin concentrations and bone mineral parameters in adolescent female athletes or controls. Adiponectin was inversely correlated to BMD and BMC of femoral neck and lumbar spine (r=−0.47–0.62) in the swimmer group only, but after adjustments for age, height and body mass these associations disappeared. Leptin concentrations correlated with bone mineral parameters even after adjusting for age, height and body mass (r = 0.42–0.63) in the gymnast group only.
Conclusion: We may conclude that after adjustment, leptin is the only adipokine of those measured that correlates to femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMC in the rhythmic gymnast group.