Aim: Faecal incontinence (FI) is a common disorder involving both the enteric (ENS) and central nervous systems (CNS). The aim of the study is to analyze neurophysiologically the central processing of emotions in children with FI, healthy controls and children with Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: Fourteen children with FI and constipation, nine with non-retentive FI, 15 controls and 13 children with ADHD were examined. The methods included a physical exam, sonography, Child Behavior Checklist, a psychiatric interview and intelligence test. Acoustic evoked potentials were recorded according to standardized methodology. For the event-related potentials, 80 neutral, 40 positive and 40 negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), and 40 pictures depicting faeces were presented.
Results: Children with FI had significantly more intense responses for most stimuli over the frontal, central and parietal regions compared to controls. Stool pictures did not evoke stronger responses than other stimuli. Children with constipation elicited stronger responses. Children with ADHD did not differ from controls. Acoustic evoked potentials were comparable in all groups.
Conclusions: Children with FI have increased responses in the processing of emotions. These can be interpreted as a neurobiological vulnerability, possibly due to the association of the ENS and CNS.