Imaging the urinary tract in children with urinary tract infection
Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011
© 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica
Volume 100, Issue 12, pages e253–e259, December 2011
How to Cite
Hannula, A., Venhola, M., Perhomaa, M., Pokka, T., Renko, M. and Uhari, M. (2011), Imaging the urinary tract in children with urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatrica, 100: e253–e259. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02391.x
- Issue published online: 8 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 18 JUL 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 28 JUN 2011 09:10AM EST
- Received 1 April 2011; revised 9 May 2011; accepted 22 June 2011.
- Renal ultrasonography;
- Urinary tract abnormality;
- Urinary tract infection;
- Vesicoureteral reflux;
- Voiding cystourethrography
Aim: To evaluate whether ultrasonography (US) alone is sufficient in imaging the urinary tract in 1185 children with urinary tract infection (UTI).
Methods: The reports on US and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were reviewed.
Results: Initial US was normal in 861/1185 patients (73%). VCUG revealed abnormal findings in 285/861 (33%), of which grade III–V vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) comprised 97 cases (11%). During follow-up, VUR had resolved in 88/97 (91%) patients: in 50/57 (88%) patients without active treatment for VUR, in 27/29 (93%) with endoscopic and in 11/11 (100%) with open surgery for VUR. During follow-up, 11/97 patients (11%) had developed new renal scarring detectable in US, but no renal impairment occurred. Except for VUR, VCUG showed nonobstructive urethral valves in two infant boys with normal initial US. Thus, in 861 children with normal initial US, 40 patients with grade III–V VUR and two patients with significant nonreflux pathology may have benefited from surgical treatment, giving the total number of possibly missed pathological finding in 42/861 (4.9%) cases if VCUG had not been performed.
Conclusion: We suggest that children with UTI could be examined using US alone and to use VCUG only after additional indications.