Aim: Serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels are elevated after perinatal asphyxia, but the influence of hypothermia on these proteins has not been previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of systemic hypothermia on these protein levels after perinatal asphyxia, time course, and association with perinatal factors and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age.
Methods: Serum S100B and NSE levels were measured at fixed time points in asphyxiated infants treated with standard intensive care on hypothermia (HT: n = 13) or normothermia (NT: n = 11).
Results: Serum S100B and NSE levels were grossly elevated in both HT and NT groups. Compared with the values at 6 h of age, S100B values decreased over time in both groups (NT: p = 0.002, HT: p = 0.04). Serum S100B values were lower in HT infants compared with those in NT infants (p = 0.047 at 48 h). Serum S100B and NSE values were significantly higher in infants who died or developed severe neurological impairment (S100B, p < 0.05 at all time points; NSE, p = 0.036 at 24 h of age).
Conclusion: Both NSE and S100B levels are highly elevated following asphyxia. Serum S100B levels were lower in the HT group and strongly correlated with the neurodevelopmental outcome.