Aim: Published data on acute renal failure in children from the Democratic Republic of Congo are rare. The objective of this study was to review clinical manifestations, aetiologies and outcome in hospitalized children with acute renal failure.
Methods: A retrospective study at Pediatric Nephrology Unit of University Hospital of Kinshasa was carried out.
Results: Fifty-six children with acute renal failure were eligible. There were 31 boys (55.4%) and 25 girls (44.6%) with a sex ratio of 1.24. The median age was 6.7 years (range 1–13 years). Fever (80.3%), oligo-anuria (73.2%), jaundice (67.9%) were the common clinical presentation. Blackwater fever (42.8%) was the leading cause of Acute Renal Failure. The incidence of severe dehydration because of gastroenteritis was low (5.3%). Around 12.5% of patients’ misused herbal plants. Acute Peritoneal Dialysis was indicated in 15/56 children and only performed in four patients. Fourteen children (25%) died.
Conclusion: A wide spectrum of features was seen in hospitalized Acute Renal Failure children and limited access to Acute Peritoneal Dialysis remained an important mortality risk factor.