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Keywords:

  • 3-PG model;
  • Climate analysis;
  • Decision tree analysis;
  • Species geographical distribution

Abstract

Question: Can we interpret how climatic variation limits photosynthesis and growth for one widely distributed species, and then relate these responses to model the geographic distributions of other species?

Location: The forested region of the Pacific Northwest, United States and Canada.

Methods: We first mapped monthly climatic data, averaged for the period 1950 to 1975 at 1 km resolution across the region. The recorded presence and absence of 15 native tree species were next mapped at 1 km resolution from data acquired on 22 771 field survey plots. To establish seasonal limits on photosynthesis and water use, a process-based growth model (3-PG, Physiological Processes to Predict Growth) was parameterized for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most widely distributed species in the region. Automated decision tree analyses were used to predict the distribution of different species by creating a suite of rules associated with the relative constraints that soil drought, atmospheric humidity deficits, suboptimal and subfreezing temperatures would impose on the growth of Douglas-fir.

Results: The 3-PG process-based modeling approach, combined with automated decision tree analyses, predicted presence and absence of 15 conifers on field survey plots with an average accuracy of 82±12%. Predictive models of current distribution for each species differed in the number of, order in, and physiological thresholds selected. A deficit in the soil water balance, followed by departures from optimum temperatures in the summer were the two most important variables selected in predicting species distributions.

Conclusions: Although empirical models using different sampling techniques and statistical analyses may be more accurate in predicting current distribution of species, the hybrid approach presented in this paper provides a greater mechanistic understanding of the limits to growth and tree distributions. These attributes of process-based models make them particularly useful in designing mitigating strategies to projected changes in climate.