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Appendix S1. Electronic appendices. Mean values (Av.) and Standard Deviation (SD) for seedlings recorded in the seed bank of uninvaded communities (U) and communities invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum (I) from tree sites at three depths (A = 0 – 5 cm; B = 5 – 10 cm; 10 – 15 cm), in May and October.

Appendix S2. Statistical notes.

Appendix S3. PERMANOVA and PERMDISP tests conducted on data collected in a) May and b) October at three sites associated with Heracleum mantegazzianum invasions. The tests were based on untransformed data, using a modified Gower distance as a measure of dissimilarity. Each test was based on 9999 permutations.

Appendix S4. Statistical evaluation of Heracleum mantegazzianum invasions. Pair-wise a posteriori comparisons following PERMANOVA analyses were used to test the interaction among the factors invasion, site and depth. Results are displayed for data collected in May and October.

Appendix S5. Statistical evaluation of Heracleum mantegazzianum invasions. Mean (± SE, n = 3) following PERMDISP analysis testing the variability within levels of the factors “site” and “depth”. Results are displayed for data collected in May and October. Only significant comparisons were made. Depth: A = 0 – 5 cm; B = 5 – 10 cm; C = 10 – 15 cm.

Appendix S6. Summary of four-way ANOVAs testing the effects of invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum (I), site (S), plot (P), and depth (D) on species richness (S), the Shannon diversity index (H ′) and the Simpson dominance index (λ), for data collected in May and October.

Appendix S7. Summary of four-way ANOVAs testing the effects of invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum (I), site (S), plot (P), and depth (D) on total and forb seedling abundance (excluding that of H. mantegazzianum), and grass seedling abundance, for data collected in May and October.

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