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Appendix S1. Nested temperature of forest plots grouped by type of forest (dominant species) and woody species richness (low, medium, and high). Note that the range of richness categories may change across forest types. Mean values of temperatures were obtained by 1000 Monte Carlo simulations assuming random distribution of species presences following the ANINHADO procedure, which also provides statistical significances: n.s., not significant; *P&0.05.

Appendix S2. CCA results from species composition and richness status of impoverishment (Ssi), topoclimatic, and forest structure variables. Plots of some forest types were split into subsets according to their climatic characteristics described by the Thornthwaite index.

Appendix S3. Species associated with forest impoverishment (Ssi), i.e., those in which the projection of their CCA vector over the Ssi vector was higher than half of the length of the Ssi vector. In bold type species the variability explained by the first two axes was more than 15%. Successional status indicates the position in the successional gradient, from early (1) to mature (5) communities; 0 values were retained for non-native species.

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