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Fig. S1. Relationships between meteorological and bioclimatic variables related to cold tolerance: January mean temperature compared to the mean temperature of the coldest month (Tc) for the northern hemisphere (NH); July mean temperature compared to Tc for the southern hemisphere (SH); global comparison of Tc and Tmin. January temperature is well correlated with Tc in the NH (r2=1.00) and July temperature is well correlated with Tc in the SH (r2=1.00). Tc and Tmin are well correlated globally (r2=0.88) and a polynomial function of Tc can be substituted for Tmin in a first-order analysis (Prentice et al. 1992a). However, the difference between Tc and Tmin is systematically less in the SH.

Fig. S2. Relationships between meteorological and bioclimatic variables related to heat stress: July mean temperature compared to mean temperature of the warmest month (Tw) for the NH; January mean temperature compared to Tw for the SH; global comparison of Tw and Tmax. July temperature and Tw are well correlated in the NH (r2=0.99) and January temperature is well correlated with Tw in the SH (r2=0.98), but the global relation between Tw and Tmax is weak (r2=0.53).

Fig. S3. Dependence of GDD5 on Tw globally and on seasonal temperatures in the NH and SH.

Fig. S4. Relationships between meteorological and bioclimatic variables related to drought tolerance: annual precipitation versus the ratio of precipitation to equilibrium evapotranspiration (P/Eq); P/Eq versus the ratio of actual to equilibrium evapotranspiration (α). P is a poor predictor of P/Eq (r2=0.389). α is correlated (r2=0.64) with P/Eq but there are deviations, especially in Mediterranean-type climates, reflecting the role of rainfall seasonality in determining the partitioning of P between plant-available moisture and runoff (Prentice et al. 1992b; Barboni & Bonnefille 2001).

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