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Appendix S1. Location of study area, plots (n=7), and fire scar samples (n=37) in old-growth P. ponderosa forest in the southern Cascades, California.

Appendix S2. Plot and site characteristics in old-growth P. ponderosa forests in the southern Cascades, California.

Appendix S3. Spatial distribution of tree (>5-cm dbh) ages of P. ponderosa and Q. kelloggii in old-growth forests in the southern Cascades, California. Plot dimensions are 100 m×100 m (BC6) and 130 m×70 m (BC3). Circle size is scaled to tree age.

Photo S1. Aerial view of the clumped nature of Pinus ponderosa trees and seedlings in 2005 in the Beaver Creek Pinery, Lassen National Forest, Southern Cascades, USA. Fires burned through this old-growth forest in 1990 and 1994 killing smaller diameter trees which reduced tree density and basal area. Photo by E. Knapp

Photo S2. Even aged patch of P. ponderosa pine seedlings that established on bare mineral soil beneath a standing dead tree that was consumed by fire in either 1990 or 1994 in the Beaver Creek Pinery, Lassen National Forest, Southern Cascades, USA. Photo by A. Taylor.

Photo S3. Group of P. ponderosa trees with small clumps of different age trees forming a multi-aged patch at small to intermediate spatial scales in the Beaver Creek Pinery, Lassen National Forest, Southern Cascades, USA. Note the Q. kelloggii in the background that are being over-topped by P. ponderosa. Fires burned through this old-growth forest in 1990 and 1994. Photo by C.Skinner.

Photo S4. Mosaic of P. ponderosa and Q. kelloggii tree groups in an old-growth forest in the Beaver Creek Pinery, Lassen National Forest, Southern Cascades, USA. Fires burned through this forest in 1990 and 1994. Photo by M. Beaty.

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