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Fine-scale patterns of species and phylogenetic turnover in a global biodiversity hotspot: Implications for climate change vulnerability

Authors

  • Juliane Sander,

    1. School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
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  • Grant Wardell-Johnson

    1. School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
    2. Curtin Institute for Biodiversity and Climate, School of Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Sander, J. (corresponding author, juliane.sander@uqconnect.edu.au) & Wardell-Johnson, G. (g.wardell-johnson@curtin.edu.au): School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
    Wardell-Johnson, G.: Curtin Institute for Biodiversity and Climate, School of Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia

  • Co-ordinating Editor: Peter Adler

Abstract

Question: What is the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors for species compositional and phylogenetic turnover?

Location: High-rainfall zone of the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR).

Methods: Correlates of species compositional turnover were assessed using quadrat-based floristic data, and establishing relationships with environmental and spatial factors using canonical correspondence analyses and Mantel tests. Between-quadrat phylogenetic distance measures were computed and examined for correlations with environmental and spatial attributes. Processes structuring pa2t2terns of beta diversity were also evaluated within four broad floristic assemblages defined a priori.

Results: Floristic diversity was strongly related to environmental attributes. A low significance of spatial variables on assemblage patterns suggested no evident effect of dispersal limitations. Species compositional turnover was especially high within the swamp and outcrop assemblage. Phylogenetic turnover was closely coupled to species compositional turnover, implying the occurrence of many locally endemic and phylogenetically relict taxa. Beta diversity patterns within assemblages were also significantly correlated with the local environment, and relevant correlates differed between floristic assemblage types.

Conclusion: Phylogenetic diversity in the SWAFR high-rainfall zone is clustered within edaphic microhabitats in a generally subdued landscape. A clustered rather than dispersed distribution of phylogenetic diversity increases the probability of significant plant diversity loss during periods of climate change. Climate change susceptibility of the region's flora is accordingly estimated to be high. We highlight the conservation significance of swamp and outcrops that are characterized by distinct hydrological properties and may provide refugial habitat for plant diversity during periods of moderate climate change.

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