SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adie, H. & Lawes, M.J. 2009. Role reversal in the stand dynamics of an angiosperm–conifer forest: colonising angiosperms precede a shade-tolerant conifer in Afrotemperate forest. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 159168.
  • Attiwill, P.M. 1994. The disturbance of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. Forest Ecology and Management 63: 247300.
  • Bartha, S., Meiners, S.J., Pickett, S.T.A. & Cadenasso, M.L. 2003. Plant colonization windows in a mesic old-field succession. Applied Vegetation Science 6: 205212.
  • Bauhus, J., Puettmann, K. & Messier, C. 2009. Silviculture for old-growth attributes. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 525537.
  • Betts, M.G., Hagar, J.C., Rivers, J.W., Alexander, J.D., McGarigal, K. & McComb, B.C. 2010. Thresholds in forest bird occurrence as a function of the amount of early-seral broadleaf forest at landscape scales. Ecological Applications 20: 21162130.
  • Bock, J.H., Raphael, M. & Bock, C.E. 1978. A comparison of planting and natural succession after a forest fire in the northern Sierra Nevada. Journal of Applied Ecology 15: 597602.
  • Bormann, F.H. & Likens, G.E. 1979. Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer, New York, NY, US.
  • Christensen, N.L. 2000. Vegetation of the Southeastern coastal plain. In: Barbour, M.G. & Billings, D.W. (eds.) North American terrestrial vegetation, pp. 397445. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, US.
  • Clements, F.E., 1916. Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Washington Publication 242, Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC, US.
  • Connell, J.H. & Slatyer, R.O. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111: 11191144.
  • Cumming, S., Trindade, M., Greene, D. & Macdonald, S.E. 2009. Canopy and emergent white spruce in ‘pure’ broadleaf stands: frequency, predictive models, and ecological importance. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: 19972004.
  • Donato, D.C., Fontaine, J.B., Campbell, J.L., Robinson, W.D., Kauffman, J.B. & Law, B.E. 2009a. Conifer regeneration in stand-replacement portions of a large mixed-severity wildfire in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: 823838.
  • Donato, D.C., Fontaine, J.B., Robinson, W.D., Kauffman, J.B. & Law, B.E. 2009b. Vegetation response to a short interval between high-severity wildfires in a mixed-evergreen forest. Journal of Ecology 97: 142154.
  • Egler, F. E. 1954. Vegetation science concepts I. Initial floristic composition, a factor in old-field vegetation development. Vegetatio 4: 412417.
  • Emborg, J., Christensen, M. & Heilmann-Clausen, J. 2000. The structural dynamics of Suserup Skov, a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark. Forest Ecology and Management 126: 173189.
  • Eugenio, M., Verkaik, I., Lloret, F. & Espelta, J.M. 2006. Recruitment and growth decline in Pinus halepensis populations after recurrent wildfires in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). Forest Ecology and Management 231: 4754.
  • FEMAT (Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team) 1993. Forest Ecosystem Management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, US.
  • Franklin, J.F. & Van Pelt, R. 2004. Spatial aspects of structural complexity in old-growth forests. Journal of Forestry 102(3): 2228.
  • Franklin, J.F., Spies, T.A., Van Pelt, R., Carey, A.B., Thornburgh, D.A., Berg, D.R., Lindenmayer, D.B., Harmon, M.E., Keeton, W.S., Shaw, D.C., Bible, K. & Chen, K. 2002. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Forest Ecology and Management 155: 399423.
  • Fujimori, T. 2001. Ecological and silvicultural strategies for sustainable forest management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL.
  • Gleason, H.A. 1917. The structure and development of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 44: 463481.
  • Greene, D.F. & Johnson, E.A. 2000. Tree recruitment from burn edges. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 12641274.
  • Halpern, C.B. & Franklin, J.F. 1990. Physiognomic development of Pseudotsuga forests in relation to initial structure and disturbance intensity. Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 475482.
  • Harrington, T.B., Tappeiner, J.C. & Hughes, T.F. 1991. Predicting average growth and size distributions of Douglas-fir saplings competing with sprout clumps of tanoak or Pacific madrone. New Forests 5: 109130.
  • Harvey, B.J. 2010. Post-fire vegetation change and stand dynamics in a Pinus muricata forest. Thesis. San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, CA, US.
  • Hobbs, S.D., Tesch, S.D., Owston, P.W., Stewart, R.E., Tappeiner, J.C. & Wells, G.E. (eds.) 1992. Reforestation practices in Southwestern Oregon and Northern California. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, US.
  • Isaac, L.A. & Dimock, E.J. 1960. Natural reproduction of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Forest & Range Experiment Sta., USDA Forest Service, Portland, OR, US.
  • Kayes, L.J., Anderson, P.D. & Puettmann, K.J. 2010. Vegetation succession among and within structural layers following wildfire in managed forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 21: 233247.
  • Keeton, W.S. 2006. Managing for late-successional/old-growth characteristics in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 235: 129142.
  • Keeton, W.S., Chernyavskyy, M., Gratzer, G., Main-Knorn, M., Shpylchak, M. & Bihun, Y. 2010. Structural characteristics and aboveground biomass of old-growth spruce-fir stands in the eastern Carpathian mountains, Ukraine. Plant Biosystems 2010: 112.
  • Kint, V., Mohren, G.M.J., Geudens, G., DeWulf, R. & Lust, N. 2004. Pathways of stand development in aging Pinus sylvestris forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 549560.
  • Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F. & Franklin, J.F. 2000. Structural features of old-growth Australian montane ash forests. Forest Ecology and Management 134: 189204.
  • Lloret, F., Estevan, H., Vayreda, J. & Terradas, J. 2005. Fire regenerative syndromes of forest woody species across fire and climatic gradients. Oecologia, 146: 461468.
  • Lutz, J.A. & Halpern, C.B. 2006. Tree mortality during early forest development: a long-term study of rates, causes, and consequences. Ecological Applications 76: 257275.
  • McElhinny, C., Gibbons, P. & Brack, C. 2006. An objective and quantitative methodology for constructing an index of stand structural complexity. Forest Ecology and Management 235: 5471.
  • Oliver, C.D. 1981. Forest development in North America following major disturbances. Forest Ecology and Management 3: 153168.
  • Oliver, C.D. & Larson, B.C. 1996. Forest stand dynamics. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, US.
  • Osawa, A., 1992. Development of a mixed-conifer forest in Hokkaido, northern Japan, following a catastrophic windstorm: A ‘parallel’ model of plant succession. In: Kelty, M.J., Larson, B.C. & Oliver, C.D. (eds.), The ecology and silviculture of mixed-species forests, pp. 2952. Kluwer, Dordrecht, NL.
  • Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenass, M.L. & Meiners, S.J. 2009. Ever since Clements: from succession to vegetation dynamics and understanding to intervention. Applied Vegetation Science 12: 921.
  • Poage, N.J. & Tappeiner, J.C. 2002. Long-term patterns of diameter and basal area growth of old-growth Douglas-fir trees in western Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 12321243.
  • Romme, W.H., Everham, E.H., Frelich, L.E., Moritz, M.A. & Sparks, R.E. 1998. Are large, infrequent disturbances qualitatively different from small, frequent disturbances? Ecosystems 1: 524534.
  • Sensenig, T. 2002. Development, fire history, and current and past growth rates of old-growth and young-growth forest stands in the Cascade, Siskiyou, and mid-coast mountains of southwestern Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, US.
  • Shatford, J.P.A., Hibbs, D.E. & Puettmann, K.J. 2007. Conifer regeneration after forest fire in the Klamath-Siskiyous: how much, how soon? Journal of Forestry 105: 139146.
  • Smith, J.K. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station GTR-RMRS-042, Ogden, UT, US.
  • Spies, T.A. & Franklin, J.F. 1991. The structure of natural young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir forests. In: Ruggiero, L.F., Aubry, K.B., Carey, A.B. & Huff, M.H. (eds.), Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests, pp. 7180. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285, Portland, OR, US.
  • Strong, W.L. 2009. Populus tremuloides Michx. postfire stand dynamics in the northern boreal cordilleran ecoclimatic region of central Yukon Territory, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 11101120.
  • Swanson, M.E., Franklin, J.F., Beschta, R.L., Crisafulli, C.M., DellaSala, D.A., Hutto, R.L., Lindenmayer, D.B. & Swanson, F.J. 2011. The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 9: 117125.
  • Tappeiner, J.C., Huffman, D., Marshall, D., Spies, T.A. & Bailey, J.D. 1997. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 638648.
  • Turner, P.A.M., Balmer, J. & Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2009. Stand-replacing wildfires? The incidence of multi-cohort and single-cohort Eucalyptus regnans and E. oblique forests in southern Tasmania. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 366375.
  • Walker, L.R., Walker, J. & Hobbs, R.J. 2007. Linking restoration and succession in theory and practice. Springer, New York, NY, US.
  • Wang, X., Ye, J., Li, B., Zhang, J., Lin, F. & Hao, Z. 2010. Spatial distributions of species in an old-growth temperate forest, northeastern China. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 10111019.
  • Wilson, D.S. & Puettmann, K.J. 2007. Density management and biodiversity in young Douglas-fir forests: challenges of managing across scales. Forest Ecology and Management 246: 123134.
  • Wood, S.W., Hua, Q., Allen, K.J. & Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2010. Age and growth of a fire prone Tasmanian temperate old-growth forest stand dominated by Eucalyptus regnans, the world's tallest angiosperm. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 438447.
  • Zavitkovski, J. & Newton, M. 1968. Ecological importance of snowbrush Ceanothus velutinus in the Oregon Cascades. Ecology 49: 11341145.
  • Zenner, E.K. 2005. Development of tree size distributions in Douglas-fir forests under differing disturbance regimes. Ecological Applications 15: 701714.
  • Zenner, E.K., Lahde, E. & Laiho, O. 2011. Contrasting the temporal dynamics of stand structure in even- and uneven-sized Picea abies dominated stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 289299.