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Appendix S1. Location of study sites in Scotland (British Isles).

Appendix S2. Correlation between the area sampled on the lower tree bole using a spiral transect (sampling effort) and the respective tree girth (habitat area).

Appendix S3. Equations for calculating species accumulation curves based on species density and species turnover.

Appendix S4. Schematic showing the calculation of species richness using species density combined with turnover among accumulated samples.

Appendix S5. Correction factors to adjust the sampled area and species density with respect to the three-dimensional surface of the tree bark and tree bole curvature.

Appendix S6. The R code used for quadrat resampling to estimate species richness (sR) for a given sampling effort (area sampled = A), based on species density and species turnover.

Appendix S7. Plots showing the accumulation of species richness for quadrat area (cm2), using resampling (= 100) to randomize the sequence of quadrats for each individual aspen tree (cf. Appendix S3 and S4 Part B).

Appendix S8. Plots for the comparison of phenotypic characters and a tree age gradient, used to identify lichen epiphyte functional traits (cf. Table 3).

Appendix S9. Comparison of lichen epiphyte phenotypic characters with a tree age gradient derived from CCA, having removed the effect of site identity on community composition.

Appendix S10. Species frequency of occurrence across Scottish aspen stands or model diagnostics for GAMs used to calculate species likelihoods, providing weighting factors during random sampling from the regional species pool into the local community.

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