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Kidney allotransplantation was performed in 24 rabbits following sensitization by three to nine skin grafts from the prospective donor. During sensitization cytotoxic antibodies active against donor cells appeared in 21 of the recipients. Seven grafts presented cortical necrosis as well as multiple glomerular microthrombi. The similarity between the lesion and that of hyperacute rejection in human kidney allotransplantation is discussed.