Water from some dental clinics has been examined and found to be discoloured, badly tasting and with a foul odour. Moreover, brown or black flakes were often present in tap water, as well as in the water lines of dental equipment. Examination by phase-contrast and electron microscope showed the flakes to consist of aggregated fungi and bacteria, and similar structures were found in a layer on the inner surfaces of the clinics water tubes and pipes. The ultrastructure of some aggregating microorganisms, including fungal hyphae and sheath-forming and stalked bacteria, was studied in detail, and several modes of aggregation were suggested. Cultivation of contaminated water samples revealed the presence of filamentous fungi, including Cladosporium and Cephalosporium, and of non-fluorescent Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella (?). Removal of microorganisms from the walls of the tubing was effectively accomplished by rinsing with the non-corrosive solution of 4 per cent Tween 80, coloured with Ponceau 4 R.