The new stereological tools: Disector, fractionator, nucleator and point sampled intercepts and their use in pathological research and diagnosis

Authors

  • H. J. G. Gundersen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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  • P. Bagger,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Laboratory of Reproductive Biology II, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark
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  • T. F. Bendtsen,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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  • S. M. Evans,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Liverpool, England, Denmark
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  • L. Korbo,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Neurological Research Laboratory, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark
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  • N. Marcussen,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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  • A. MØLler,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Neurological Research Laboratory, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark
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  • K. Nielsen,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Institute of Pathology, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark
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  • J. R. Nyengaard,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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  • B. Pakkenberg,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. Neurological Research Laboratory, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark
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  • F. B. SØRensen,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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  • A. Vesterby,

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
    2. University Institute of Pathology, åhus Amtssygehus, Denmark
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  • M. J. West

    1. Stereological Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pathology, 2nd University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Arhus
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Stereological Research Laboratory, University Bartholin Bygning, DK-8000 åhus C, Denmark.

Abstract

The new stereological methods for correct and efficient sampling and sizing of cells and other particles are reviewed. There is a hierarchy of methods starting from the simplest where even the microscopic magnification may be unknown to the most complex where typically both section thickness and the magnification must be known. Opticalsections in suitably modified microscopes can be used to improve the ease and speed with which even the most demanding of these methods are performed. The methods are illustrated by practical examples of applications to a wide range of histological entities including synapses, neurons and cancer cells, glomerular corpuscles and ovarian follicles.

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