Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked staining reactions with antibodies against type III procollagen (pN collagen), type IV collagen, fragment PI of laminin and factor VIII. Patients with osteomyelosclerosis had particularly increased collagen content, including both newly deposited type III collagen (pN collagen) and mature collagen fibres. As in normal bone marrow, argyrophilic fibres and type III collagen displayed a close co-distribution, which was also demonstrated for type IV collagen and laminin. While normal bone marrow sinusoids had discontinuous basement membranes, fibrosing bone marrow was characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and capillarization, with the development of continuous sheets of basement membrane material beneath endothelial cells.