The routine use of antibiotics in oral implant treatment seems to be widespread. The pre- or postoperative use of antibiotics in conjunction with implant surgery and its correlation with failure and success rates are poorly documented in the literature. The debate regarding overprescription of antibiotics raises the need for a critical evaluation of proper antibiotic coverage in association with implant treatment.
The purpose of this study was to compare the implant survival rate following a 1-day single-dose preoperative antibiotic regimen with that following a 1-week postoperative antibiotic protocol.
Materials and Methods:
The study included 868 consecutively treated patients. A total of 3,021 implants were placed. The population was split into two categories, either receiving a 1-day single-dose administration only, or a 1-week postoperative administration of antibiotics. Healing was evaluated at second-stage surgery (6 months for the upper jaw, 3 months for the lower jaw). Failure was defined as removal of implants because of non-osseointegration. Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance and the Scheffe test, with a significance level of 5% for comparison of data.
No significant differences with regard to complications and implant survival were found in the study.
Based on the present data, a more restrictive regimen consisting of a 1-day dose of prophylactic antibiotic in conjunction with routine implant procedures is recommended.