Background: Adequate alveolar ridges are fundamental to successful rehabilitation with implants. There are diverse techniques for reconstructing atrophied ridges, of which bone substitute grafts is one possibility.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to carry out radiological and histomorphometric evaluations of bone response to collagenized porcine bone xenografts over a 4-month period following their insertion in rabbits' tibiae.
Material and Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used. Twenty collagenized porcine bone xenografts (Osteobiol® mp3, Tecnoss Dental s.r.l., Torino, Italy), in granulated form of 600 to 1,000 µm, were inserted in the proximal metaphyseal area of the animals' tibiae and 20 control areas were created. Following implantation, the animals were sacrificed in four groups of five, after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively. Radiological and histomorphometric studies were made.
Results: After 4 months, radiological images revealed bone defects with a decrease in graft volume and the complete repair of the osseous defect. No healed or residual bone alterations attributable to the presence of the implants were observed. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 months found mean values for newly formed bone, residual graft material, and non-mineralized connective tissue of 25.4 ± 1.8%, 36.37 ± 3.0%, and 38.22 ± 2.5%, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the length of cortical formation with collagenized porcine xenograft (98.9 ± 1.1%) compared with the control samples (99.1 ± 0.7%) at the end of the study period.
Conclusions: The biomaterial used proved to be biocompatible, bioabsorbable, and osteoconductive and as such, a possible bone substitute that did not interfere with the bone's normal reparative processes.