• 1
    Williamson JA, Fenner PJ, Burnett JW, Rifkin J. Venomous and poisonous marine animals: a medical and biological handbook. Sydney : New South Wales University Press, 1996.
  • 2
    Rifkin JF, Endean R. Arrangement of accessory cells and nematocysts bearing mastigophores in the tentacles of the cubozoan Chironex fleckeri J Morphol 1988; 195:103115.
  • 3
    Stein MR, Marraccini JV, Rothschild NE, Burnett JW. Fatal Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis) envenomation. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18:312315.
  • 4
    Burnett JW, Gable WD. A fatal jellyfish envenomation by the Portuguese man-o'-war. Toxicon 1989; 27:823824.
  • 5
    Mingliang Z, Qin Shede. The marine stinger in South China Sea. Chinese J Marine Drugs 1991; 4:36.
  • 6
    Flecker H. Irukandji’ sting to north Queensland bathers without production of wheals but with severe general symptoms. Med J Aust 1952; 1:8991.
  • 7
    Pigulevsky SV, Michalev PV. Poisoning by the medusa Gonionemus vertens in the Sea of Japan. Toxicon 1969; 7:145149.
  • 8
    Fenner PJ. The global problem of cnidarian stinging. MD Thesis. London University, 1997:1202.
  • 9
    Bengston K, Nichols MM, Schnadig V, Ellis MD. Sudden death in a child following jellyfish envenomation by Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. JAMA 1991; 266:14041406.
  • 10
    Heegar T. Harmful jellyfish (Scyphozoa, Cubozoa and Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) of the Philippines. Article presented at 1996 Conference on Marine Biology: Marine Biology Dept., San Carlos University, Cebu City 6000. Philippines.
  • 11
    Cleland JB, Southcott RV. Injuries to man from marine invertebrates in the Australian region. National Health and Medical Research Council, Special Report Series No 12. Canberra, 1965:143.
  • 12
    Kizer KW. Case report: decompression sickness or Portuguese man'o'war envenomation. Wilderness Med 1984; 1:78.
  • 13
    Burnett JW, Fenner PJ, Kokelj F, Williamson JA. Serious Physalia (Portuguese Man o'war) stings: implications for scuba divers. J Wilderness Med 1994; 5:7176.
  • 14
    Adiga KM. Brachial spasm as a result of a sting. Med J Aust 1984; 140:180181.
  • 15
    Williamson JA, Burnett JW, Fenner PJ, et al. Acute regional vascular insufficiency after jellyfish envenomation. Med J Aust 1988; 149:698701.
  • 16
    Migas EA, Popova GA. Instructions on rendering medical assistance to persons stung by a venomous krestovik-medusa from the Sea of Japan. Vladivostok 1988:110 [in Russian].
  • 17
    Otsuru M, Sekikawa H, Hiroii Y, et al. Observations on the sting occurring among swimmers in the rocky seashore. Aquatic Sci Fish Abst 1974: 4Q10805M.
  • 18
    Fenner PJ, Fitzpatrick PF, Hartwick RJ, Skinner R. Morbakka’, another cubomedusan. Med J Aust 1985; 143:550555.