SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Moore PS, Reeves MW, Schwartz B, et al. Intercontinental spread of an epidemic group A Neisseria meningitidis strain. Lancet 1989; 334:260263.
  • 2
    CDC Serogroup. W-135 meningococcal disease among travellers returning from Saudi Arabia—United States 2000. MMWR 2000; 49:345346.
  • 3
    Alzeer A, Mashlah A, Fakim N, et al. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of pneumonia requiring hospitalization during Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah). J Infect 1998; 36:303306.
  • 4
    Rafiq SM, Rashid H, Haworth E, Booy R. Hazards of hepatitis at the Hajj. Travel Med Infect Dis 2009; 7:239246.
  • 5
    Ahmed QA, Arabi YM, Memish ZA. Health risks at the Hajj. Lancet 2006; 367:10081015.
  • 6
    Alzeer AH. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj. Ann Thorac Med 2009; 4:5053.
  • 7
    Al-Ghamdi SM, Akbar HO, Qari YA, et al. Pattern of admission to hospitals during Muslim pilgrimage (Hajj). Saudi Med J 2003; 24:10731076.
  • 8
    Madani TA, Ghabrah TM, Al-Hedaithy MA, et al. Causes of hospitalization of pilgrims in the Hajj season of the Islamic year 1423 (2003). Ann Saudi Med 2006; 26:346351.
  • 9
    Madani TA, Ghabrah TM, Albarrak AM, et al. Causes of admission to intensive care units in the Hajj period of the Islamic year 1424 (2004). Ann Saudi Med 2007; 27:101105.
  • 10
    Mustafa AN, Gessner BD, Ismail R, et al. A case-control study of influenza vaccine effectiveness among Malaysian pilgrims attending the Haj in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis 2003; 7:210214.
  • 11
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Bashir HE, et al. Influenza and the Hajj: defining influenza-like illness clinically. Int J Infect Dis 2008; 12:102103.
  • 12
    Shafi S, Booy R, Haworth E, et al. Hajj: health lessons for mass gatherings. J Infect Public Health 2008; 1:2732.
  • 13
    Al-Asmary S, Al-Shehri A-S, Abou-Zeid A, et al. Acute respiratory tract infections among Hajj medical mission personnel, Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis 2007; 11:268272.
  • 14
    Choudhry AJ, Al-Mudaimegh KS, Turkistani AM, Al-Hamdan NA. Hajj-associated acute respiratory infection among hajjis from Riyadh. East Mediterr Health J 2006; 12:300309.
  • 15
    AlMudmeigh K, AlNaji A, AlEnezi M, et al. Incidence of Hajj related acute respiratory infection among pilgrims from Riyadh, 1423 H (2003 G). Saudi Epidemiol Bull 2003; 10:2526.
  • 16
    El-Sheikh SM, El-Assouli SM, Mohammed KA, Albar M. Bacteria and viruses that cause respiratory tract infections during the pilgrimage (Haj) season in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Trop Med Int Health 1998; 3:205209.
  • 17
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Haworth E, et al. Viral respiratory infections at the Hajj: comparison between UK and Saudi pilgrims. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008; 14:569574.
  • 18
    El Bashir H, Haworth E, Zambon M, et al. Influenza among U.K. pilgrims to hajj, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10:18821883.
  • 19
    Abdin EZ, Choudhry AJ, Al-Naji A. Effect of the use of face mask on hajj related acute respiratory infection among Hajjis from Riyadh, a health promotion intervention study. Saudi Epidemiol Bull 2005; 12:2728.
  • 20
    Babcock H, Merz L, Fraser V. Is influenza an influenza-like illness? Clinical presentation of influenza in hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27:266270.
  • 21
    Qureshi H, Gessner BD, Leboulleux D, et al. The incidence of vaccine preventable influenza-like illness and medication use among Pakistani pilgrims to the Haj in Saudi Arabia. Vaccine 2000; 18:29562962.
  • 22
    Thursky K, Cordova SP, Smith D, Kelly H. Working towards a simple case definition for influenza surveillance. J Clin Virol 2003; 27:170179.
  • 23
    Rashid H, Rafiq S. Defining influenza like illness. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27:12851286.
  • 24
    Meysamie A, Ardakani HZ, Razavi SM, Doroodi T. Comparison of mortality and morbidity rates among Iranian pilgrims in Hajj 2004 and 2005. Saudi Med J 2006; 27:10491053.
  • 25
    Gautret P, Yong W, Soula G, et al. Incidence of Hajj-associated febrile cough episodes among French pilgrims: a prospective cohort study on the influence of statin use and risk factors. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15:335340.
  • 26
    Khamis NK. Epidemiological pattern of diseases and risk behaviors of pilgrims attending mina hospitals, hajj 1427 h (2007 g). J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2008; 83: 1533.
  • 27
    CDC What you should know about using facemasks and respirators during a flu pandemic. 2009. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/features/masksrespirators/. (Accessed 2009 Jan 15).
  • 28
    Gautret P, Gaillard C, Soula G, et al. Pilgrims from Marseille, France, to Mecca: demographics and vaccination status. J Travel Med 2007; 14:132133.
  • 29
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Booy R, et al. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Emerg Health Threats J 2008; 1:e2.
  • 30
    Deris ZZ, Hasan H, Sulaiman SA, et al. Preference of treatment facilities among Malaysian Hajj pilgrims for acute respiratory symptoms. Saudi Med J 2009; 30:11031104.
  • 31
    Balkhy HH, Memish ZA, Bafaqeer S, Almuneef MA. Influenza a common viral infection among Hajj pilgrims: time for routine surveillance and vaccination. J Travel Med 2004; 11:8286.
  • 32
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Haworth E, et al. Value of rapid testing for influenza among Hajj pilgrims. Travel Med Infect Dis 2007; 5:310313.
  • 33
    Razavy S, Dabiran S, Ardekani HZ. The incidence of influenza like illness and determination of the efficacy of flu vaccine in Iranian pilgrims during hajj pilgrimage. Act Med Iran 2004; 42:397401.
  • 34
    Rashid H, Shafi S, Haworth E, et al. Influenza vaccine in Hajj pilgrims: policy issues from field studies. Vaccine 2008; 26:48094812.
  • 35
    CDC. Surveillance for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus and seasonal influenza viruses—New Zealand, 2009. MMWR 2009; 58:918921.
  • 36
    Kelly H, Grant K. Interim analysis of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Australia: surveillance trends, age of infection and effectiveness of seasonal vaccination. Euro Surveill 2009; 14:19288.
  • 37
    Gallaher W. Towards a sane and rational approach to management of Influenza H1N1 2009. Virol J 2009; 6:51.
  • 38
    H1N1 prompts hajj restrictions Aljazeera English News 2009. Available at: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/07/200972311236123448.html. (Accessed 2009 Aug 31).