Background. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing travelers' diarrhea (TD) during the summer season.

Methods. The goal of this double-blinded multicenter trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of rifaximin 550 mg administered once daily for 14 days compared with placebo in the prevention of TD during the dry season in Mexico.

Results. There were 101 participants randomized. Overall, 25 participants developed TD during the 3 weeks of the study: 22% from the rifaximin group and 29% from the placebo group (p = 0.4). Mild diarrhea (defined as only one or two unformed stools during a 24-h period plus at least one abdominal symptoms) developed in only 3 (6%) participants taking rifaximin compared with 10 (21%) taking placebo during the first week of study (p = 0.03). No clinically significant or serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusions. Antibiotic prophylaxis of TD in Mexico during the dry season needs to be further studied and its benefits weighed against the benefits of self-treatment.