Acetazolamide for the Prevention of Acute Mountain Sickness—A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors


Corresponding Author: Neil D. Ritchie, MRCP (UK), Clinical Lecturer in Infectious Disease, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, Level 4, B429, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. E-mail: Neil.Ritchie@Glasgow.ac.uk

Abstract

Background

Acetazolamide has been reported to be effective in the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acetazolamide in the prevention of AMS.

Methods

Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Primary end point was difference in incidence of AMS between acetazolamide and placebo groups.

Results

Acetazolamide prophylaxis was associated with a 48% relative-risk reduction compared to placebo. There was no evidence of an association between efficacy and dose of acetazolamide. Adverse effects were often not systematically reported but appeared to be common but generally mild. One study found that adverse effects of acetazolamide were dose related.

Conclusions

Acetazolamide is effective prophylaxis for the prevention of symptoms of AMS in those going to high altitude. A dose of 250 mg/day has similar efficacy to higher doses and may have a favorable side-effect profile.

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