Changing Patterns of Mongolian Fertility at a Time of Social and Economic Transition



In 1989, after a long period of socialist rule, Mongolia initiated a democratization process of its political system together with a transition toward a market economy. This study examines how changes in socioeconomic conditions in Mongolia have affected fertility patterns in recent times. It also provides an outline of changes that have taken place in terms of pronatalist policies. Data are drawn from the Reproductive Health Survey of Mongolia conducted in 1998. Among the older cohort, the relationship between economic activity and fertility is inverse but weak, whereas among the younger cohort, the economic downturn has had a strongly depressing effect on fertility. Important effects of micro-level variables, including education and housing, are also noted. The findings suggest that the fertility decline observed for the older cohorts is part of the first demographic transition, in which the collapse of pronatalist policies was influential