This study examines the levels and correlates of contraceptive failure and discontinuation in Romania, together with the consequences of contraceptive method failure in terms of induced abortion. Of special interest are women who rely on the traditional method of withdrawal and the proportion of withdrawal failures resulting in abortion. Our analysis is based on multiyear calendar data concerning women's contraceptive use and monthly reproductive behaviors collected in the 1999 Romanian Reproductive Health Survey. Weibull regression models are estimated to analyze the determinants of discontinuation and failure for all methods combined and for withdrawal. Overall, 19 and 28 percent of women became pregnant within the first year of using any contraceptive method and of practicing withdrawal, respectively. About 57 and 59 percent of failures from use of all methods and from withdrawal ended in abortion, accounting for 30 percent and 22 percent, respectively, of all abortions reported between 1994 and 1999. These findings suggest that high rates of contraceptive discontinuation and failure contributed significantly to the widespread reliance on induced abortion among Romanian women during this period.