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This article provides a critical review of studies assessing the effects of unintended pregnancy on the health of infants, children, and parents in developed and developing countries. A framework for determining and measuring the pathways between unintended pregnancy and future health outcomes is outlined. The review highlights persistent gaps in the literature, indicating a need for more studies in developing countries and for further research to assess the impact of unintended pregnancy on parental health and long-term health outcomes for children and families. The challenges in measuring and assessing these health impacts are also discussed, highlighting avenues in which further research efforts could substantially bolster existing knowledge.