A randomized community trial of a family planning outreach program was conducted in Rakai District, Uganda. Five communities received standard services; six intervention communities received additional family planning information, counseling, and contraceptive methods from government service providers and community-based volunteer agents using social marketing and other strategies. Condom use was promoted in all of the communities. The community-based family planning outreach program was implemented in two phases—1999–2000 (early) and 2001 (late)—and its impact was evaluated by means of population surveys in 2002–03. At follow-up, hormonal contraceptive prevalence was 23 percent in the intervention communities, compared with 20 percent in the control communities. The differential was greater in the early-intervention communities than the late-intervention communities. Pregnancy rates at follow-up were 15 percent in the control and 13 percent in the intervention communities. No differentials in condom use were found between study arms. Family planning outreach via social marketing can significantly increase hormonal contraceptive use and decrease pregnancy rates, but the impact of this outreach program was modest.