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Population structure of pigs determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms observed in assembled expressed sequence tags


Naohiko Okumura, Second Research Division, STAFF-Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0854, Japan. (Email:


We have collected more than 190 000 porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and identified more than 2800 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we tentatively chose 222 SNPs observed in assembled ESTs to study pigs of different breeds; 104 were selected by comparing the cDNA sequences of a Meishan pig and samples of three-way cross pigs (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc: LWD), and 118 were selected from LWD samples. To evaluate the genetic variation between the chosen SNPs from pig breeds, we determined the genotypes for 192 pig samples (11 pig groups) from our DNA reference panel with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 222 reference SNPs, 186 were successfully genotyped. A neighbor-joining tree showed that the pig groups were classified into two large clusters, namely, Euro-American and East Asian pig populations. F-statistics and the analysis of molecular variance of Euro-American pig groups revealed that approximately 25% of the genetic variations occurred because of intergroup differences. As the FIS values were less than the FST values, the clustering, based on the Bayesian inference, implied that there was strong genetic differentiation among pig groups and less divergence within the groups in our samples.