This study was carried out to investigate the effects of bamboo charcoal and bamboo vinegar as alternatives of antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs and their influence on growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. Crossed pigs (n = 144, 79 kg body weight) were divided into 12 heads per pen, four diets and three replications. The basal diet (negative control: NC) was supplemented with 0.3% antibiotics (positive control: PC), 0.3% bamboo charcoal (BC) and 0.3% bamboo vinegar (BV). Average daily weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (P < 0.05) in PC, BC and BV. The concentration of lactate dehydrogenase and cortisol were lower (P < 0.05), but the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA were higher (P < 0.05) in PC, BC and BV. Counts of coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp. were lower (P < 0.05), while the counts of fecal anaerobic total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were higher (P < 0.05) in PC, BC and BV. A reasonable inclusion of bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar as antibiotics in the diet of fattening pigs leads to a better growth performance, immune responses and fecal microflora populations. The results of the present study suggest that bamboo charcoal or bamboo vinegar could be a potential additives in animal production as an alternative to antibiotics.