Supported by Biomedical Research Grant No. 81–22, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL, REAL-TIME ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN THE DOG Technique and Anatomic Validation
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2005
Volume 25, Issue 2, pages 50–64, March 1984
How to Cite
Thomas, W. P. (1984), TWO-DIMENSIONAL, REAL-TIME ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN THE DOG Technique and Anatomic Validation. Veterinary Radiology, 25: 50–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.1984.tb01910.x
- Issue published online: 19 MAY 2005
- Article first published online: 19 MAY 2005
- two-dimensional echocardiography
Two-dimensional, real-time echocardiography (2DE), studied extensively in humans, has only recently been utilized in veterinary medicine. To develop standardized transducer locations and examination technique and to validate cardiac anatomy as imaged from these locations, 2DE was performed in 12 normal, anesthetized dogs. Anatomic structures were identified by shape, position and motion, selective microbubble-laden saline injections, and percutaneous pin insertion followed by necropsy dissection. Consistent echotomographic images were obtained from right intercostal and left intercostal transducer locations. From the right, long-axis and short-axis views of the heart were obtained. From the left, several long-axis views were possible. One or more views of all four cardiac chambers, atrioventricular and semilunar valves, and the proximal portions of the great vessels were obtained by systematic examination from both sides of the thorax. It was concluded that complete anatomic evaluation of the canine heart by 2DE was possible using a standardized, systematic examination technique.