Technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxine (99mTc-HMPAO) and Indium-111 oxine (111In-oxine) labeled canine gramulocytes were evaluated in vitro over a six hour period. Labeling efficiency for 99mTC-HMPAO and 111In-oxine labeled granulocytes was 39.6%± 8.0% and 60.6%± 17.6% (mean ± SD) respectively. The mean in vitro elution of the radiolabel ranged from 8.7-14.0% for the 99mTc-HMPAO grannulocytes and from 6.1-9.0% for the 111In-oxine granulocytes. Mean cell viability, for the 99mTc-HMPAO, 111In-oxine and non-radiolabeled control granulocytes ranged from 97.8-99.4%, 96.4-98.5% and 98.2-99.0%, respectively. The phagocytic ability of the 99mTc-HMPAO, 111In-oxine and control granulocytes ranged from 47.5-54.1%, 38.9-56.2% and 46.6-57.8% respectively over the six hour study period. Although labeling efficiency using 111In-oxine was significantly (P=0.05) better than 99mTc-HMPAO, there was no significant difference in label retention of the two radiolabels. There was no significant difference in viability or phagocytic function during the six hour study period. Considering the potential cost advantage and the superior imaging qualities of Technetium-99m relative to Indium-111, 99mTc-HMPAO appears to be a good alternative to 111In-oxine as a granulocyte label.