The ability of duplex Doppler ultrasonography to assist with the diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction was investigated in a study of 5 dogs with surgically induced, unilateral ureteral obstruction. The resistive index (RI) of obstructed kidneys was compared to that of controls and to the contralateral unobstructed kidneys. The RI was also evaluated following relief of obstruction. On the basis of an RI measurement ≥0.70 indicating obstruction, a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 77% was determined for the diagnosis of obstruction with Doppler ultrasonography. Although mean RI was elevated in obstructed kidneys compared to controls, it was concluded that a high false-negative rate (27%) limits the clinical usefulness of Doppler ultrasonography for the detection of urinary obstruction in dogs. The RI difference between obstructed and nonobstructed kidneys was also evaluated within individual animals, but the magnitude of difference between kidneys did not significantly improve the detection rate for obstruction.