A retrospective study of 15 dogs and three cats was done to characterize the appearance of meningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain, and to correlate this appearance with its underlying cause. Two patterns of meningeal enhancement (pial and dural) were identified. Enhancement of the pia mater was evident in four dogs and one cat, while enhancement of the dura mater was seen in 11 dogs and 2 cats. A variety of causes of meningeal enhancement were identified, including bacterial and cryptococcal meningitis, plasmacytic meningitis with associated subdural fluid accumulation, granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, inflammation secondary to otitis interna, feline infectious peritonitis, and neoplasia. The present study confirms that pial or dural meningeal enhancement may be present on MR images of the brain of dogs or cats in association with a variety of central nervous system diseases. A larger prospective study is required to further establish the incidence of specific patterns of meningeal enhancement seen in association with specific diseases.