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Keywords:

  • echocardiography;
  • German Shepherd dog;
  • M-mode echocardiography;
  • reference values;
  • two-dimensional echocardiography

M-mode echocardiographic measurements were made from 50 healthy German Shepherd dogs (30 males and 20 females). The dogs were awake and unsedated, in right lateral recumbent position. The following parameters were measured on the echocardiographic images: interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole (IVSd), interventricular septal thickness at end-systole (IVSs), left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular internal dimension at end-systole (LVIDs), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (LVPWd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole (LVPWs), left atrial dimension (LAD), aortic root dimension (AOD), left atrial to aortic root ratio (LAD/AOD), right ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole (RVID), amplitude of mitral valve excursion (DE amplitude), velocity of mitral valve opening (D–E slope), and velocity of mitral valve closure (E–F slope). Fractional shortening (FS) was also calculated. The effect of gender and age on each echocardiographic parameter was analyzed and the relationship between body weight (BW) and each parameter was also investigated. There was a significant relationship between gender and LVPW in systole and diastole and FS. Significant association was also found between BW and IVS, LVID, and LVPW in systole and diastole, FS, LAD, AOD, RVID, DE amplitude, and D–E slope of the mitral valve.