• dogs;
  • gadolinium;
  • liver;
  • magnetic resonance angiography;
  • parallel imaging;
  • portal vein

Portal vein anomalies are common in dogs and cats. Diagnostic imaging is central in their diagnosis and fundamental with regard to choosing the best therapeutic option. Various imaging techniques are used in veterinary medicine to assess the portal vein. Each has individual advantages and disadvantages. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is used routinely in humans to image the portal system and has excellent spatial and temporal resolution and three-dimensional (3D) acquisition. Herein, we report the development of a CE-MRA protocol that resulted in fast 3D imaging of the arterial splanchnic and portal venous system in normal dogs. Multiphase acquisition strategy allowed acquiring the same volume several times during one single breath-hold, thereby capturing the portal venous phase with excellent signal. Excellent depiction of the vascular anatomy, especially the portal afferent vessels and branches, was observed. Elliptical centric view ordering of k-space was used to acquire the contrast-sensitive data faster. Parallel imaging was used to increase coverage in the dorsal to ventral direction while keeping imaging time short. It is anticipated that 3D CE-MRA is a fast and noninvasive imaging method that could be used to diagnose various portal vascular anomalies in small animals.