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PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN DOGS WITH MITRAL REGURGITATION ATTRIBUTABLE TO MYXOMATOUS VALVE DISEASE

Authors


  • Preliminary results presented at the 46th International SCIVAC meeting Milan, 2003.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Michele Borgarelli, at the above address. E-mail: mborgare@vet.k-state.edu.

Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension has been associated with mitral insufficiency caused by chronic degenerative valve disease in dogs. Our aim was to search for associations between left atrial to aortic root ratio, end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices, and changes in the right ventricular to right atrial pressure gradient as estimated by the peak velocity of tricuspid regurgitation in dogs with chronic degenerative valve disease and different classes of heart failure. Dogs, for which follow-up was available were evaluated for changes in the right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient over time. Three hundred and forty-four dogs were studied; 51 in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council class 1a, 75 in class 1b, 113 in class 2, 97 in class 3a, and 8 in class 3b. The mean values for right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient, end-systolic volume index, end-diastolic volume index, and left atrial to aortic ratio were 49.2 ± 17.1 mmHg, 149.12 ± 60.8 and 37.7 ± 21.6 ml/m2, and 1.9 ± 0.5, respectively. A weak positive correlation was found between the right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient and the left atrial to aorta ratio (r=0.242, P<0.0001), end-diastolic volume index (r=0.242, P<0.0001), and end-systolic volume index (r=0.129, P<0.001). Follow up was available for 49 dogs. Of these, 18 had an increased, 12 a decreased, and 19 a stable right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient despite therapy. The equivalence point between the sensitivity and specificity curves of about 80% in the coincident point corresponded to a right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient of 48 mmHg. Our results suggest an association between the progressive nature of chronic degenerative mitral valve disease and pulmonary hypertension. It is of clinical interest that, with a right ventricular to right atrial systolic pressure gradient pressure gradient at or above 48 mmHg, pulmonary hypertension does not appear to improve despite therapy targeted at lowering the left atrial load.

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