In this retrospective study, two observers independently reviewed thoracic imaging studies of 39 dogs with confirmed histiocytic sarcoma. The most common findings were intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, identified by the first and second observers in 82.1% and 87.2% of dogs, respectively, and pulmonary masses (74.4% and 82.1%). Right middle lung lobe masses were significantly more common than masses in any other lung lobe (P<0.0013), with the majority having a ventral distribution. Sternal and tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy were significantly more common than cranial mediastinal lymphadenopathy (P-values of 0.0002 and 0.012, respectively). Interobserver agreement regarding distribution of lymphadenopathy and pulmonary masses was good (κ=0.64 and 0.75, respectively). Other findings included pulmonary nodules, pleural effusion, and abnormal pulmonary patterns. In patients with CT examinations, the majority of masses were mildly to moderately enhancing and heterogeneous, poorly marginated, and bronchocentric. Lymphadenopathy and pulmonary masses are the most common intrathoracic findings in dogs with histiocytic sarcoma, and the strong predilection for the ventral aspect of the right middle lung lube may help to differentiate it from other types of neoplasia.