Our purpose was to characterize meningeal gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in dogs with inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, and to assess interobserver variability and the impact of delayed acquisition and chemical fat saturation on its conspicuity. Transverse T1-weighted FLAIR images were acquired prior to, and immediately following gadolinium injection (T0), and at 5 (T5) and 15–20 min delay (TD), with and without fat suppression, in 155 consecutive dogs imaged for suspected brain disease. The agreement on meningeal enhancement was globally substantial (κ = 0.61) and the likelihood of obtaining a definite diagnosis was significantly increased with the use of fat suppression (P ≤ 0.004). Meningeal enhancement was judged definitively present by consensus in 46 of 155 (30%) dogs. Of these, meningeal enhancement was characterized qualitatively and quantitatively in 30 dogs with a clinical diagnosis (18 inflammatory, 11 neoplastic, 1 infarct), and image sequences were compared. Meningeal enhancement was more often diffuse and leptomeningeal in animals with inflammation versus neoplasia (50% vs. 42%, and 69% vs. 48%, respectively), but significant associations were not found. Meningeal thickness and contrast ratio were higher with neoplasia (P ≤ 0.02), but results did not vary significantly between series for either group. Yet, images with fat suppression were most useful 50% of the time for definite diagnosis and/or characterization of meningeal enhancement. While delayed image acquisition following gadolinium injection does not improve characterization of meningeal enhancement in dogs, fat suppression is beneficial qualitatively.