• anatomy;
  • cardia;
  • cat;
  • pylorus;
  • ultrasonography

A prospective study was performed in 34 fasted healthy cats to describe the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the cardia and pylorus. Measurements were obtained for the caudal esophageal wall thickness (Ew), cardia wall thickness (Cw), pyloric wall thickness (Pw), thickness of the pyloric muscularis (Mp), length of the thicker part of the proximal duodenal submucosa (Dl). Among the 34 cats, 24 were examined using a linear transducer, and 10 with a microconvex transducer. Ew and Cw could be measured in 70% of the cats when a linear transducer was used, in 100% of the cats when a microconvex probe was used, Pw and Mp could be measured in 100% of the cats whatever probe was used. The submucosa of the most proximal part of the duodenum was thicker in half of the cats in longitudinal section. The muscularis layer of the pylorus was triangular in longitudinal section and thicker than the muscularis of the proximal duodenum. The mean for Ew, Cw, Pw, Mp, and DI was 4.9 mm (SD = 1.1), 5 mm (SD = 0.6), 4.4 mm (SD = 0.6), 2.5 mm (SD = 0.5), and 4.7 mm (SD = 2.38), respectively. Three cats with abnormalities of the cardia and pylorus are also described to illustrate clinical implications.