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Formulas providing adequate pantothenic acid, vitamin D, manganese, iron and vitamin A for infants fed with mother's milk (aged 6–11 months) according to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2005 edition)


Setsuko Tsutie, Clinical Nutrition Management, Kobe Women's University, 2-1, Aoyama, Higashisuma, Suma-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 654-8585, Japan. E-mail:


Weaning formulas served in hospitals and care facilities in Japan should conform to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). We examined whether the DRI for breastfed infants aged 6–11 months can be satisfied in dietary practice, with a particular focus on the fulfilment rates for vitamins, minerals, trace elements and electrolytes in weaning formulas containing energy and protein at levels either greater than or equal to the DRIs, as well as on the dietary profiles of weaning formulas to achieve the DRI for every nutrient. The results showed that no weaning formulas examined in this study fulfilled the DRI for pantothenic acid (5 mg), vitamin D (4 µg), manganese (1.2 mg) or iron (5.5 mg). Furthermore, their vitamin A content exceeded the DRI (350 µg RE). The discrepancy between the guidelines and actual dietary practice is probably because of the fact that the estimated reference values poorly reflect the actual dietary intake in the target population; for example, the pantothenic acid and manganese DRIs for breastfed infants aged 6–11 months were set based on the breast milk intake of younger infants (0–5 months) in combination with the breast milk contents. Our results suggest that dietary guidance for infants should include information to promote proper intakes of vitamins A and D, and iron by reducing the amount of vitamin A-rich foods and utilizing dietary vitamin D and iron supplements including government-approved specified health foods.