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References

  • 1
    Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report: Fourth Assessment Report. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar-syr.pdf.
  • 2
    Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Tokgoz, S., Hayes, D. and Yu, T. (2008) Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land use change. Sciencexpress, 319 (5867), 12381240.
  • 3
    Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2011) Biofuels: Ethical Principles. London: National Council on Bioethics. http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org.
  • 4
    European Commission (2009) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Brussels: EC. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables.
  • 5
    European Commission (2009) Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EC. Brussels: EC. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/fuel.
  • 6
    Brander, M., Tipper., Hutchinson. C., and Davis, G. (2009) Consequential and attributional approaches to LCA: A guide to policy makers with specific reference to greenhouse gas lca of biofuels. Technical Paper TP-090403-A, Ecometrica Press, Edinburgh. http://www.ecometrica.co.uk.
  • 7
    European Commission (2010) Report from the Commission on indirect land-use change related to biofuels and bioliquids. COM(2010)811 final, 22 December. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/studies/land_use_change.en.htm.