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Students' Perceived Parental School Behavior Expectations and Their Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis


  • School of Social Welfare, State University of New York at Albany, 135 Western Avenue, Richardson Hall, Albany, NY 12222.

  • Carolina Institute for Public Policy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.

  • Education Studies Division, RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194.

School of Social Work, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 325 Pittsboro Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3550 (


Self-report data from 2,088 sixth-grade students in 11 middle schools in North Carolina were combined with administrative data on their eighth-grade end-of-the-year achievement scores in math and reading to examine the influence of students' perceived parental school behavior expectations on their academic performance. Through use of multilevel modeling and control for the influence of students' demographics, trouble avoidance, and perceived support from adults and peers, we found that students' perceptions of their parents' expectations of their school behavior had a small but positive and statistically significant influence on their math and reading scores approximately 3 years later. Implications for the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools are discussed.