• father involvement;
  • fragile families;
  • paternal engagement;
  • resilience;
  • risk

The present study examined whether fathers' additive risk and resilience when the child is an infant and age 5 predicted paternal engagement with children at age 5. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,898), we found that the results confirmed the hypothesis that early risk has a negative effect and early resilience has a positive effect on engagement 4 years later. Later father risk had a stronger negative effect on nonresidential fathers than on residential fathers. The effect of early father risk on engagement at age 5 was moderated by father engagement during infancy. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.