University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 248 Stone Building, P.O. Box 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170.
Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination
Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
© 2013 by the National Council on Family Relations
Volume 62, Issue 1, pages 140–153, February 2013
How to Cite
Rollins, A. and Hunter, A. G. (2013), Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination. Family Relations, 62: 140–153. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2012.00748.x
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
- ethnic minority family issues;
- family diversity by race;
- multiracial families;
- racial socialization
We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of racial socialization discussed in the literature, including cultural, minority, self-development, egalitarian, and silent racial socialization. These messages varied by the biracial heritage of the youth, such that mothers of biracial youth with Black heritage were more likely to provide self-development racial socialization messages, whereas mothers of biracial youth without Black heritage were more likely to provide silent racial socialization. On the basis of the array of racial socialization messages mothers delivered, we identified three emergent approaches: promotive, protective, and passive racial socialization.