• breadwinning;
  • fathers;
  • identity;
  • mothers;
  • parenting;
  • reflected-appraisals

A new theoretical model for parental identity, reflected-appraisals, and behavior was proposed. Parental identity and behavior in married parents were then investigated as a function of partner's and perceived reflected-appraisals, taking into account gender context effects. Sixty-four married couples completed the Caregiving and Breadwinning Identity and Reflected-Appraisal Inventory (CBIRAI), developed for this study to assess parental caregiving and breadwinning identity and reflected-appraisals, as well as caregiving and breadwinning behavior measures. The model was confirmed for fathers and partially confirmed for mothers. Specifically, caregiving identity and behavior in fathers, and breadwinning identity in mothers were functions of perceived reflected-appraisals. Limitations and implications are discussed.