Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families


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    The Pennsylvania State University, 2110 Beecher Dock House, University Park, PA 16802.

    **The Pennsylvania State University, 118 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802.

    ***The Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802.

    This article was edited by Velma McBride Murry.

The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Henderson Bldg., University Park, PA 16802 (


We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization.